The Evolution of the English Scientific Register

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The most widely spoken languages of Italy fall within a family of which even standard Italian is part, the Italo-Dalmatian group. This wide category includes:.

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Modern standard Italian is heavily based on the Florentine dialect of Tuscan. Florentine thus gradually rose to prominence as the volgare colloquial speech of the literate and upper class in Italy, and it spread throughout the peninsula and Sicily as the lingua franca among the Italian educated class as well as Italian traveling merchants.

The economic prowess and cultural and artistic importance of Tuscany in the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance further encouraged the diffusion of the Florentine-Tuscan Italian throughout Italy and among the educated and powerful, though local and regional languages remained the main languages of the common people. The language indigenous to Sardinia , while being Romance in nature, is considered to be a specific linguistic family of its own, separate from all the other Neo-Latin groups; it is often subdivided into the Centro-Southern and Centro-Northern dialects.

Though mostly mutually unintelligible, the exact degree to which all the Italian languages are mutually unintelligible varies, often correlating with geographical distance or geographical barriers between the languages; some regional Italian languages that are closer in geographical proximity to each other or closer to each other on the dialect continuum are more or less mutually intelligible.

1 Introduction

For instance, a speaker of purely Eastern Lombard , a language in Northern Italy 's Lombardy region that includes the Bergamasque dialect , would have severely limited mutual intelligibility with a purely standard Italian speaker and would be nearly completely unintelligible to a Sicilian -speaking individual.

Due to Eastern Lombard's status as a Gallo-Italic language, an Eastern Lombard speaker may, in fact, have more mutual intelligibility with an Occitan, Catalan , or French speaker than with a standard Italian or Sicilian speaker. Meanwhile, a Sicilian-speaking person would have a greater degree of mutual intelligibility with a speaker of the more closely related Neapolitan language, but far less mutual intelligibility with a person speaking Sicilian Gallo-Italic, a language that developed in isolated Lombard emigrant communities on the same island as the Sicilian language.

During the Risorgimento , proponents of Italian republicanism and Italian nationalism , like the Lombard Alessandro Manzoni , stressed the importance of establishing a uniform national language in order to better create an Italian national identity.

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The Evolution of the English Scientific Register - Hildegard Schnell - Term Paper - English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics - Publish your. The changing conditions in England in the late Middle Ages triggered a particular evolution of English, then the typical language of nationalist expression. The re.

However, at the time of the Italian Unification, standard Italian still existed mainly as a literary language, and only 2. In the early 20th century, the vast conscription of Italian men from all throughout Italy during World War I is credited with facilitating the diffusion of standard Italian among less educated Italian men, as these men from various regions with various regional languages were forced to communicate with each other in a common tongue while serving in the Italian military. With the popular spread of standard Italian out of the intellectual circles, because of the mass-media and the establishment of public education , Italians from all regions were increasingly exposed to standard Italian.

These variations on standard Italian, known as regional Italian , would thus more appropriately be called "dialects" in accordance with the first linguistic definition of "dialect", as they are in fact derived partially or mostly from standard Italian, [40] [16] [41] with some degree of influence from the local or regional native languages and accents. Today, the majority of Italians are able to speak standard Italian, though many Italians still speak their regional language regularly or as their primary day-to-day language, especially at home with family or when communicating with Italians from the same town or region.

The classification of speech varieties as dialects or languages and their relationship to other varieties of speech can be controversial and the verdicts inconsistent.

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Serbo-Croatian illustrates this point. Serbo-Croatian has two major formal variants Serbian and Croatian. Both are based on the Shtokavian dialect and therefore mutually intelligible with differences found mostly in their respective local vocabularies and minor grammatical differences.

Certain dialects of Serbia Torlakian and Croatia Kajkavian and Chakavian , however, are not mutually intelligible even though they are usually subsumed under Serbo-Croatian. How these dialects should be classified in relation to Shtokavian remains a matter of dispute. Macedonian , although largely mutually intelligible with Bulgarian and certain dialects of Serbo-Croatian Torlakian , is considered by Bulgarian linguists to be a Bulgarian dialect, in contrast with the contemporary international view and the view in North Macedonia , which regards it as a language in its own right.

Nevertheless, before the establishment of a literary standard of Macedonian in , in most sources in and out of Bulgaria before the Second World War, the southern Slavonic dialect continuum covering the area of today's North Macedonia were referred to as Bulgarian dialects.


In Lebanon , a part of the Christian population considers " Lebanese " to be in some sense a distinct language from Arabic and not merely a dialect. During the civil war Christians often used Lebanese Arabic officially, and sporadically used the Latin script to write Lebanese, thus further distinguishing it from Arabic. All Lebanese laws are written in the standard literary form of Arabic, though parliamentary debate may be conducted in Lebanese Arabic. In Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco, the Darijas spoken North African languages are sometimes considered more different from other Arabic dialects.

Officially, North African countries prefer to give preference to the Literary Arabic and conduct much of their political and religious life in it adherence to Islam , and refrain from declaring each country's specific variety to be a separate language, because Literary Arabic is the liturgical language of Islam and the language of the Islamic sacred book, the Qur'an.

Although, especially since the s, the Darijas are occupying an increasing use and influence in the cultural life of these countries. Examples of cultural elements where Darijas' use became dominant include: theatre, film, music, television, advertisement, social media, folk-tale books and companies' names. The Modern Ukrainian language has been in common use since the late 17th century, associated with the establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate.

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In the 19th century, the Tsarist Government of the Russian Empire claimed that Ukrainian was merely a dialect of Russian and not a language on its own. According to these claims, the differences were few and caused by the conquest of western Ukraine by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, in reality the dialects in Ukraine were developing independently from the dialects in the modern Russia for several centuries, and as a result they differed substantially.


However, in the late s - early s, the process started to reverse. Witnessing the Ukrainian cultural revival spurred by the Ukrainization in the early s, and fearing that it might lead to an independence movement, Moscow started to remove from power and in some cases physically eliminate the public proponents of Ukrainization. The appointment of Pavel Postyshev as the secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine marked the end of Ukrainization , and the opposite process of Russification started.

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After World War II, citing Ukrainian collaboration with Nazi Germany in an attempt to gain independence as the reason, Moscow changed its policy towards increasing repression of the Ukrainian language. Today the boundaries of the Ukrainian language to the Russian language are still not drawn clearly, with an intermediate dialect between them, called Surzhyk , developing in Ukraine, also known as balachka in Ukrainian ethnic territories controlled by Russia. There have been cases of a variety of speech being deliberately reclassified to serve political purposes.

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One example is Moldovan. In , the Moldovan parliament, citing fears of "Romanian expansionism", rejected a proposal from President Mircea Snegur to change the name of the language to Romanian, and in a Moldovan—Romanian dictionary was published, purporting to show that the two countries speak different languages.

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Unlike languages that use alphabets to indicate their pronunciation, Chinese characters have developed from logograms that do not always give hints to their pronunciation. Although the written characters have remained relatively consistent for the last two thousand years, the pronunciation and grammar in different regions have developed to an extent that the varieties of the spoken language are often mutually unintelligible.

As a series of migration to the south throughout the history, the regional languages of the south, including Gan , Xiang , Wu , Min , Yue and Hakka often show traces of Old Chinese or Middle Chinese.

From the Ming dynasty onward, Beijing has been the capital of China and the dialect spoken in Beijing has had the most prestige among other varieties. With the founding of the Republic of China , Standard Mandarin was designated as the official language, based on the spoken language of Beijing. Since then, other spoken varieties are regarded as fangyan regional speech. Cantonese is still the most commonly-used language in Guangzhou , Hong Kong , Macau and among some overseas Chinese communities, whereas Hokkien has been accepted in Taiwan as an important local language alongside Mandarin.

One language, Interlingua , was developed so that the languages of Western civilization would act as its dialects. Interlingua has also been found to assist in the learning of other languages. In one study, Swedish high school students learning Interlingua were able to translate passages from Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian that students of those languages found too difficult to understand.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about dialects of spoken and written languages. For other uses, see Dialect disambiguation. Geographically- or socially-determined language variety. This section needs additional citations for verification.

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Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Abstand and ausbau languages and A language is a dialect with an army and navy. See also: Languages of Italy and Regional Italian. This section is empty.

You can help by adding to it. February Main article: Interlingua. Retrieved 18 January American English: Dialects and Variation. Land, "Varieties of the Greek language", in Stanley E. Porter, Andrew Pitts ed.

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