Religious speech was also tightly controlled. Blasphemy was punishable by death in several colonies and religious dissenters such as Quakers were viciously persecuted in Puritan New England. Despite the harsh climate of the 17th century, the boundaries of political speech and religious tolerance were significantly expanded. In Episode 17 we try to answer questions such as:. In this episode, we join up with historian of science Dr.
Michael Shermer to investigate the cross-fertilization between science and free speech. Michael Shermer is a prolific writer on science, philosophy and morality and has appeared in numerous documentaries, talk shows, and TED talks. Episode 15 returns to Europe and formative events in 17 th Century England, where a mostly forgotten group of radicals demanded a written constitution guaranteeing free speech, liberty of conscience, and democracy.
But who were the Levellers? What was the historical context of their radical demands and why were they ultimately crushed by former allies? Episode 14 leaves the West and heads to 16th and 17th Century India and the Mughal empire. In particular, the rule of Akbar the Great. Among the questions tackled are:.
But in looking at the present challenges to free speech on campus, we do also try to draw parallels with older controversies in order to determine whether the psychological mechanisms at play are similar. The episode investigates the writings of intellectual rock stars John Milton, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke and the less famous but hugely relevant Roger Williams.
In episode 11 we continue to survey the wreckage after hurricane Luther was unleashed on Europe with the Reformation.
When the Reformation mutated and spread across the continent a burning question arose: Can people of different faiths live together in the same state? Should social peace be based on tolerance or intolerance? We look into questions such as. The disruptive effects of the internet and social media on the spread of information are unprecedented.
Or are they? In episode 10 Clear and Present Danger, we cover the invention, spread, and effects of the Gutenberg printing press:. Our last stop in the Middle Ages is an interview with professor Christine Caldwell Ames, who is an expert on medieval heresy and inquisition in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The discussion highlights the similarities and differences between Christianity, Catholic and Orthodox, Judaism, and Islam when it comes to defining and policing orthodoxy. But questions about how this was accomplished — and the consequences of these developments — abound:.
We try to answer these questions — and more — in the latest episode of our Clear and Present Danger podcast. Where was the soil most fertile for medieval freethinking? What was the impact of Muslim philosophers like Avicenna and Averroes on European thought? Professor Peter Adamson has released over podcast episodes on the history of philosophy, written several books, and published numerous papers on medieval and ancient philosophy.
Find out why the Middle Ages were as much a period of reason and inquiry as inquisition and superstition. Why was the famous medieval intellectual Pierre Abelard castrated, forced to burn his works, and condemned to silence by the church? How did the combination of Aristotelian philosophy and the development of universities institutionalize reason and science?
What are the parallels between clashes over academic freedom in the 13th and 21st centuries? Why did the medieval Abbasid Caliphs have almost all ancient Greek works of philosophy and science translated into Arabic?
What where the links between inquisition, racism and anti-semitism? The colony of Maryland was founded in as a refuge for Catholics, who were persecuted in England in the 17th century. Kushnerick was honored as a recipient for the Thomas Alva Edison Award. The name is based on their claim of the number of American colonists who actively fought in the Revolutionary War, and implies that a numerically small movement can engage in a successful armed revolutionary struggle. The beautiful land of the New World amazed the European explorers who arrived on North American shores around
How did the long list of medieval Muslim polymaths reconcile abstract reasoning with Islamic doctrine? Who were the radical freethinkers that rejected revealed religion in favor of reason in a society where apostasy and heresy were punishable by death? And why are developments in the 11th century crucial to understanding modern controversies over blasphemy and apostasy, such as the Salman Rushdie affair and the attack on Charlie Hebdo?
What are the differences between free speech in the Athenian democracy and free speech in a modern liberal democracy? What limits did religion set for Athenian free speech? Was Plato a totalitarian? And was the trial of Socrates mostly religious or political? The discussion also explores the differences between Athens and republican Rome, why free speech was alien to Sparta, and the rather condescending attitudes of the American Founding Fathers toward Athenian democracy shame on you for defaming Pericles, Alexander Hamilton!
Cartledge has written extensively on ancient Athens. How high was the price that Christians had to pay for casting away their ancient religious traditions for the belief in salvation through Jesus Christ? And why did the Christians persecute the pagans — and each other — once Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire? Why were temples and libraries destroyed and the female mathematician Hypatia killed by violent mobs? And did Emperor Justinian really end antiquity when he closed the Academy in Athens? Find out when we discover how religious persecution and violence impacted lives, learning, and liberty of conscience in the period from the trial of Jesus to the age of Justinian.
The Age of Persecution. Rome was the most powerful empire in antiquity.
They've Crossed the Line: A Patriot's Guide to Religious Freedom [Stephen L. Bloom, Kerriel Bailey] on portjolumond.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Editorial Reviews. Review. "Our nation's founders knew the essential importance of religious liberty. People of faith aren't just allowed to participate vigorously in.
But were the Romans free to speak truth to power? And who came out on top when the words of Cicero clashed with the ambition of Caesar and armies of Octavian? Why did historians and astrologers become endangered species when the Republic became an empire? The democracy of Ancient Athens was the birthplace of equal and uninhibited speech. Or Isegoria and parrhesia to the Athenians.
Jacob Mchangama guides you through how oratory was central to the idea and practice of Athenian democracy. What Athenian style free speech entailed for ordinary citizens, comedians, philosophers, and orators. The extreme methods used by Demosthenes to become the greatest orator of antiquity. And of course: the trial of Socrates: Was he a martyr for free speech or an impious and seditious enemy of democracy? So the following episode is an attempt to bring to life a pivotal but often forgotten period as we embark on the first stop of what I hope will be a long journey together through the history of free speech.
But why is that? Where does the principle of free speech come from?
How has it been developed over time? And what can people in the digital age learn from past conflicts over where to draw the line? From and until the early noughties free speech went viral across the globe as new democracies tore down the walls of censorship.
But for more than a decade the global respect for free speech has been in decline. Mchangama is a Marshall Memorial Fellow. Settlement houses, such as Hull House in Chicago, and religious-based organizations worked to help the immigrants learn English and life skills, such as cooking and sewing.
Although the Chinese Exclusion Act of restricted immigration, , Chinese came through Angel Island over a period of three decades. They were overwhelmingly the main group processed here: In fact, 97 percent of the immigrants who passed through Angel Island were from China. Explore the Angel Island Activity. Many of the immigrants who arrived in the early 20th century were poor and hardworking.
They took jobs paving streets, laying gas lines, digging subway tunnels, and building bridges and skyscrapers. They also got jobs in America's new factories, where conditions could be dangerous, making shoes, clothing, and glass products. Immigrants fueled the lumber industry in the Pacific Northwest, the mining industry in the West, and steel manufacturing in the Midwest.
They went to the territory of Hawaii to work on sugar cane plantations. Eventually, they bargained for better wages and improved worker safety. They were on the road to becoming America's middle class. By the s, America had absorbed millions of new immigrants. People became suspicious of foreigners' motivations.
Some native-born Americans started to express their dislike of foreign-born people. They were fearful that immigrants would take the available jobs. Some Americans weren't used to interacting with people who spoke different languages, practiced a different religion, or were a different race. Racism, anti-Semitism, and xenophobia fear and hatred of foreigners were the unfortunate result. In , Congress passed the National Origins Act. It placed restrictions and quotas on who could enter the country. The annual quotas limited immigration from any country to 3 percent of the number of people from that country who were living in the United States in The effect was to exclude Asians, Jews, blacks, and non-English speakers.
In the s, the country was going through the Great Depression, a terrible period of economic hardship. People were out of work, hungry, and extremely poor. Few immigrants came during this period; in fact, many people returned to their home countries. Half a million Mexicans left, for example, in what was known as the Mexican Repatriation.
Unfortunately, many of those Mexicans were forced to leave by the U. It still exists today. America was again concerned about protecting itself. Fears about foreign-born people continued to grow. As a result of the turmoil in the s, immigration figures dropped dramatically from where they had been in previous decades. In the s, approximately 4,, immigrants came to the United States; in the s, fewer than , arrived.
During the war, immigration decreased. There was fighting in Europe, transportation was interrupted, and the American consulates weren't open. Fewer than 10 percent of the immigration quotas from Europe were used from to In many ways, the country was still fearful of the influence of foreign-born people.